Encapsulation Efficiency

NIS Protein Structure
NIS Molecule
NIS Protein Structure

Encapsulation efficiency measures the percentage of nanoparticles that succesfully encapsulate drugs. This is a critical analysis in the design of drug delivery systems and drug release studies. Encapsulation efficiency of the drug can be influenced by properties of both the carrier and the encapsulated drugs themselves. The encapsulation efficiency can be affected by hydrophilicity, aqueous volume, membrane rigidity, surface area and preparation methods.

Our experts visualize drug encapsulation using cryo-TEM.

The technique is fast becoming the technique of choice to demonstrate structural parameters of nanoparticles. NIS-deployed cryo-TEM imaging provides invaluable information with regards to size distribution, morphology of the formulated drugs, and the encapsulation efficiency of materials, in particular in relation to the ratio of loaded and unloaded liposomes or empty and fully packaged capsid ratios.

Our automated methods provide reliable high throughput image acquisition that help answer critical questions on size, shape, lamellarity, cargo load, and surface morphology. We’ve imaged nearly 200 AAV samples, more than 2800 liposomal/LNP samples, and over 2800 vaccine, virus and virus-like-particle samples.

Samples We've Imaged

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Samples We've Characterized

Extracellular Vesicles
Iron nanoparticles
Lipid Nanoparticles (LNPs), with mRNA, RNA, DNA payloads
Polymeric nanoparticles
Protein (subunit) based nanoparticles
Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)
Viruses, attenuated and recombinant (BSL-2 & below)
NIS Mountain Hero
NIS Mountain Hero