Nanoparticle Characterization Samples

Iron Nanoparticles

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Anemia and iron deficiency are commonly observed in the clinic, especially under certain conditions such as pregnancy, chemotherapy, and chronic kidney disease. The delivery of intravenous or intramuscular iron supplements to a patient must be carefully controlled to avoid toxic side effects. Beginning in the 1940s, it was demonstrated that complexes of carbohydrates and iron oxyhydroxide allow for the rapid but safe delivery of iron. Several different formulations have since been developed and approved for clinical use. These formulations all form nanoparticles that vary in the composition of their carbohydrate shell and the size and stability of their iron cores. The exact physicochemical characteristics of these nanoparticles can affect their pharmacokinetic profile.

Comprehensive Characterization of Iron Nanoparticles with Cryo-TEM Imaging

Cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) allows for the assessment of several important features of iron nanoparticle formulations. The size of the entire nanoparticle, as defined by the carbohydrate shell, can be assessed directly from cryo-TEM images. The increased electron scattering of iron relative to carbohydrates causes regions of varying density to show up within the nanoparticle and can potentially allow for estimation of iron core size within these nanoparticles. Using a proprietary in-house developed machine learning algorithm, NIS can potentially size both particles and dense cores in your iron nanoparticle formulation. The aggregation, morphology, and size of particles can all be assessed in cryo-TEM images.

Iron Nanoparticle characterization by Cryo-TEM | nanoparticle characterization | nanoimaging services
Example cryo-TEM images of Iron Nanoparticles

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Frequently Asked Questions

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Is your particle sizing analysis able to size my iron nanoparticles and their dense cores?

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Yes, we are potentially able to size iron nanoparticles and dense cores using our proprietary in-house developed machine learning algorithm.

How many particles do you count, or images do you analyze per sample or grid?

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We collect ~60 images from different sections of each grid, usually including different ice thicknesses, and analyze the agreed upon number of particles (between 250 to over 1,000).

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