Analyses

2D Class Averaging

Scientific rendering of 3D protein structure, structural biology | Nano Imaging
NIS Molecule
NIS Protein Structure

Structural details of individual particles can be difficult to discern from raw images taken on an electron microscope. This is due to the low signal-to-noise ratio typical for images of radiation-sensitive biological samples. It becomes even more challenging when the particles are conformationally or compositionally heterogeneous. 

2D class averaging is the first step in visualizing the three dimensional structure of a protein or macromolecule, and can provide researchers a comprehensive representation of particles in their sample. 2D class averages can help visually assess variability in qualities such as preferred orientation, conformation, aggregation, and homogeneity of a sample in order to help select the most viable samples for full 3D structure reconstruction.

Types of Proteins that can be 2D Class Averaged

  • Antibody-Antigen Complexes
  • Antibody-Antigen Complexes
  • GPCRs
  • GPCRs
  • Ion Channels
  • Ion Channels
  • Multi-protein complexes

  • Multi-protein complexes

  • Other Membrane Proteins
  • Other Membrane Proteins
  • Other Soluble Proteins
  • Other Soluble Proteins
  • Protein Degraders & Ternary Complexes
    • PROTAC® Degraders
    • Molecular Glues
  • Protein Degraders & Ternary Complexes
    • PROTAC® Degraders
    • Molecular Glues
  • Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes
  • Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes
  • Receptors
  • Receptors
  • RNA
  • RNA
  • Solute Carrier Transporters (SLCs)
  • Solute Carrier Transporters (SLCs)

Types of Nanoparticles that can be 2D Class Averaged

  • Protein based nanoparticles
    • Albumin NPs (Abraxane)
    • SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine
  • Protein based nanoparticles
    • Albumin NPs (Abraxane)
    • SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine
  • Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)
    • Associated Adeno-Virus (AAV) Characterization
    • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV ) Characterization
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Characterization
    • Lentivirus Characterization
  • Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)
    • Associated Adeno-Virus (AAV) Characterization
    • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV ) Characterization
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Characterization
    • Lentivirus Characterization
  • Viruses, attenuated and recombinant (BSL-2 & below)
    • Adenovirus (AV) Characterization
  • Viruses, attenuated and recombinant (BSL-2 & below)
    • Adenovirus (AV) Characterization

Frequently Asked Questions

Explore how our experts can help you.

NIS Molecule

Can I see an example report showing Negative Stain or Cryo-EM 2D class averages?

Menu Hex
can-i-see-an-example-report-showing-negative-stain-or-cryo-em-2d-class-averages

Yes! Contact us to see an example of our Starter Pack, or feasibility assessment, performed on B-amylase, which includes negative stain screening, 2D classifications in negative stain and cryo-EM, and an initial 3D structure reconstruction.

When do you use negative stain imaging versus cryo-EM imaging for obtaining 2D classifications?

Menu Hex
when-do-you-use-negative-stain-imaging-versus-cryo-em-imaging-for-obtaining-2d-classifications

When deciding whether to use negative stain imaging or cryo-EM imaging to obtain 2D class averages, our scientists take multiple elements into consideration, including the sample type, sample stability, and sample concentration.

NIS Mountain Hero
NIS Mountain Hero