2D Class Averaging

NIS Protein Structure
NIS Molecule
NIS Protein Structure

The fine structural details of individual particles can be difficult to discern from raw images taken on an electron microscope. This is due to the low signal-to-noise ratio typical for imaging of radiation-sensitive biological samples. It becomes even more challenging when the particles are conformationally or compositionally heterogeneous. 

2D class averaging enhances signal, increasing information that can be gleaned.

In this process, individual particles are selected from TEM images, aligned relative to each other, and then computationally classified based on apparent similarities. In this way each particle class becomes an average of many similar particles, which enhances the overall signal. These 2D class averages provide a rich source of information on basic particle features, domain structures, and can also help in understanding the degree of particle flexibility. 

Our automated methods provide reliable high throughput image acquisition and help answer questions on critical particle features. This service can be used with both negative stain and cryo-EM images.

Samples We've Imaged

Antibacterial Targets
Antibody-antigen complexes
DNA & RNA editing enzymes
DNA Binding Proteins
DNA Polymerases & DNA repair
Icosahedral (Adenovirus, AAV)
Ion channels
Macromolecular Complexes
Membrane proteins
Multi-component complexes
Protein degraders
Protein-nucleic acid complexes
Proteins - with and without ligands
Solute Carrier Proteins (SLCs)

Samples We've Characterized

Extracellular Vesicles
Iron nanoparticles
Lipid Nanoparticles (LNPs), with mRNA, RNA, DNA payloads
Polymeric nanoparticles
Protein (subunit) based nanoparticles
Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)
Viruses, attenuated and recombinant (BSL-2 & below)
NIS Mountain Hero
NIS Mountain Hero