NIS Mountain Hero

Our clients stay on the cutting edge of drug discovery and development by harnessing the power of cryo-EM. Here is a selection of publications that have used our TEM images over the past decade-plus.

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  • Wang B, Bruhn JF, et al. Absolute configuration determination of pharmaceutical crystalline powders by MicroED via chiral salt formation. Chem Commun (Camb). 2022 Apr 12;58(30):4711-4714. doi: 10.1039/d2cc00221c
  • Balasubramaniam D, et al. An anti-ANGPTL3/8 antibody decreases circulating triglycerides by binding to a LPL-inhibitory leucine zipper-like motif. J Lipid Res. 2022 Mar 17:100198. doi: 10.1016/j.jlr.2022.100198
  • Jessica Krakow, Michal Hammel, Ying Zhu, Brian J Hillier, Bryce Paolella, Austin Desmarais, Rusty Wall, Tseng-Hui T Chen, Rex Pei, Chulani Karunatilake, Robert DuBridge, Maia Vinogradova, Structural arrangement of the VH and VL domains in the COBRA™ T-cell engaging single-chain diabody, Antibody Therapeutics, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2022, Pages 1–10, doi: 10.1093/abt/tbab028
  • Newman, J. A.; Iuzzolino, L.; Tan, M.; Orth, P.; Bruhn, J.; Lee, A. Y. From Powders to Single Crystals: A Crystallographer’s Toolbox for Small-Molecule Structure Determination. Mol Pharmaceut 2022. doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.2c00020
  • Gruene, T., Clabbers, M. T. B., Luebben, J., Chin, J. M., Reithofer, M. R., Stowasser, F. & Alker, A. M. (2022). J Appl Crystallogr. doi: /10.1107/s160057672200276x
  • Wang, Bo; Lin, Yiqing; Absolute configuration determination of SMTP-7 via microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED); Royal Society of Chemistry 2022; doi: 10.1039/D2CC05218K


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  • Scapin, G. (2021). CryoEM in industry: Challenges and opportunities. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 27(S1), 2856-2858. doi: 10.1017/S1431927621009971
  • Kuang, H., Maruthi, K., Cheng, A., Eng, E., Potter, C., & Carragher, B. (2021). Routine collection of 10,000 direct detector movies a day using Leginon. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 27(S1), 258-260. doi: 10.1017/S1431927621001501
  • Natsuki Kurokawa, Pierre-Olivier Lavoie, Marc-André D'Aoust, Manon M.-J. Couture, Michèle Dargis, Sonia Trépanier, Shigeki Hoshino, Tomohiro Koike, Masaaki Arai, Naohisa Tsutsui, Development and characterization of a plant-derived rotavirus-like particle vaccine, Vaccine, Volume 39, Issue 35, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.039.
  • Palte, R.L., Juan, V., Gomez-Llorente, Y. et al. Cryo-EM structures of inhibitory antibodies complexed with arginase 1 provide insight into mechanism of action. Commun Biol 4, 927 (2021). doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02444-z
  • Bruhn, J.F. et al. Small Molecule Microcrystal Electron Diffraction for the PharmaceuticalIndustry–Lessons Learned From Examining Over Fifty Samples. Front. Mol. Biosci., 12 July 2021. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2021.648603
  • Hao, Q., Heo, JM., Nocek, B.P. et al. Sugar phosphate activation of the stress sensor eIF2B. Nat Commun 12, 3440 (2021). doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23836-z
  • Christoph Wigge, Aleksandar Stefanovic, Mazdak Radjainia, The rapidly evolving role of cryo-EM in drug design, Drug Discovery Today: Technologies, Volume 38, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ddtec.2020.12.003
  • Tian, JH., Patel, N., Haupt, R. et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein vaccine candidate NVX-CoV2373 immunogenicity in baboons and protection in mice. Nat Commun 12, 372 (2021). doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20653-8
  • Mayuresh M. Abhyankar, Mark T. Orr, Robert Kinsey, Sandra Sivananthan, Andrew J. Nafziger, David N. Oakland, Mary K. Young, Laura Farr, Md Jashim Uddin, Jhansi L. Leslie, Stacey L. Burgess, Hong Liang, Ines De Lima, Elise Larson, Jeffrey A. Guderian, Susan Lin, Aaron Kahn, Prakash Ghosh, Sierra Reed, Mark A. Tomai, Karl Pedersen, William A. Petri Jr. and Christopher B. Fo Front. Immunol., 25 June 2021, doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.683157


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  • Susan Krueger, Joseph E. Curtis, Daniel R. Scott, Alexander Grishaev, Greg Glenn, Gale Smith, Larry Ellingsworth, Oleg Borisov, and Ernest L. Maynard. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2021 18 (1), 359-376, doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c00986
  • Kawai T, Sun B, Yoshino H, Feng D, Suzuki Y, Fukazawa M, Nagao S, WainscottDB, Showalter AD, Droz BA, Kobilka TS, Coghlan MP, Willard FS, Kawabe Y, Kobilka BK, and Sloop KW (2020). Structural basis for GLP-1 receptor activation by LY3502970, an orally active nonpeptide agonist. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2014879117.
  • Cheng A, Negro C, Bruhn JF, Rice WR, Dallakyan S, Eng ET, Waterman DG, Potter CS and Carragher B (2020). Leginon: New Features and Applications. Protein Science. doi: 10.1002/pro.3967
  • Kamp, H.D., Swanson, K.A., Wei, R.R. et al. Design of a broadly reactive Lyme disease vaccine. npj Vaccines 5, 33 (2020). doi: 10.1038/s41541-020-0183-8
  • Swanson KA, Rainho-Tomko JN, Williams ZP, Lanza L, Peredelchuk M, Kishko M,Paavot V, Alamaares-Sapuay J, Adhikaarla H, Gupta S, Chivukula S,Gaallichan S, Zhang L, Jackson N, Yoon H, Edwards D, Wei CJ and Nabel GJ (2020). A respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F protein nanoparticle vaccinefocuses antibody responses to a conserved neutralization domain. Science Immunology. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aba6466
  • Dagbay KB, Treece E, Streich Jr. FC, Jackson JW, Faucette RR, Nikiforov A, Lin SC, Boston CJ, Nicholls SB, Capili AD, and Carven GJ. (2020). Structural basis for specific inhibition of extracellular activation of pro- orlatent myostatin by the monoclonal antibody SRK-015. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.012293
  • Portnoff AD, Patel N, Massare MJ, Zhou H, Tian J-H, Zhou B, Shinde V, Glenn GM, Smith G. Influenza Hemagglutinin Nanoparticle Vaccine Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against Structurally Distinct Domains of H3N2 HA. Vaccines. 2020; 8(1):99. doi: 10.3390/vaccines8010099
  • Suresh de Silva, George Fromm, Casey W. Shuptrine, Kellsey Johannes, Arpita Patel, Kyung Jin Yoo, Kaiwen Huang, Taylor H. Schreiber; CD40 Enhances Type I Interferon Responses Downstream of CD47 Blockade, Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Cancer Immunol Res 1 February 2020; 8 (2): 230–245. doi: 10.1158/2326-6066.


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  • Fluckiger AC ,Bozic J, Diress A, Ontsouka B, Ahmed T, Ponce A, Kirchmeier M,Diaz-Mitoma F, Conlan W, Anderson DE, and Soare C. (2019). Enveloped Virus-like Particles (eVLPs) Expressing Modified Forms of Zika VirusProteins E and NS1 Protect Mice From Zika Virus Infection. Pre-print. doi: 10.1101/666966
  • Zhaohua Richard Huang, Suresh Kumar Tipparaju, Dmitri B. Kirpotin, Christine Pien, Tad Kornaga, Charles O. Noble, Alexander Koshkaryev, Jimmy Tran, Walid S. Kamoun, Daryl C. Drummond, Formulation optimization of an ephrin A2 targeted immunoliposome encapsulating reversibly modified taxane prodrugs, Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 310, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.08.006.
  • Kujawski M, Li L, Bhatacharya S, Wong P, Lee W, (Obrien) Williams L, Li H, Cheah J, Poku K, Bowles N, Vaidehi N, Yazaki P, and Shively JE. (2019). Generation of dual specific bivalent BiTEs (dbBIspecific T-cell Engaging antibodies) for cellular immunotherapy. bioRxiv 559427 doi: 10.1101/559427
  • Orr, M.T., Khandhar, A.P., Seydoux, E. et al. Reprogramming the adjuvant properties of aluminum oxyhydroxide with nanoparticle technology. npj Vaccines 4, 1 (2019). doi: 10.1038/s41541-018-0094-0


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  • Jordan PC, Liu C, Raynaud P, Lo MK, Spiropoulou CF, Symons JA, Beigelman, L., and Deval, J. (2018) Initiation, extension, and termination of RNA synthesis by a paramyxovirus polymerase. PLoS Pathog 14(2): e1006889. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006889
  • Lin M, Krawitz D, Callahan MD, Deperalta G, and Wecksler AT. (2018). Characterization of ELISA Antibody-Antigen Interaction using Footprinting-MassSpectrometry and Negative Staining Transmission Electron Microscopy. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. doi: 10.1007/s13361-017-1883-9
  • Ramkrishna Sadhukhan, Nathan Brown, David Ouellette, David Banach, Dana I. Filoti, David Winarta, Reema Raghavendra, Silvino Sousa, Anhdao Darcy, Leslie Alessandri, Alexander Ivanov, Sahana Bose, Lucia Eaton, Gregory Preston, Jeremy Freeman & Ivan Correia | Wolfgang Weninger (Reviewing Editor) (2018) Engineering elastic properties into an anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody, Cogent Biology, 4:1, doi: 10.1080/23312025.2018.1469387
  • Scapin, G., Potter, C. S., & Carragher, B. Cryo-EM for Small Molecules Discovery, Design, Understanding, and Application. (2018). Cell Chemical Biology, 1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2018.07.006


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  • Barajas D, Aponte-Ubillus JJ, Akeefe H, Cinek T, Peltier J, and Gold D. 2017. Generation of infectious recombinant Adeno-associated virus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS One. 12(3):e0173010. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173010.
  • Blais N, Gagne M, Hamuro Y, Rheault P, Boyer M, Steff AM, Baudoux G, Dewar V, Demers J, Ruelle JL, and Martin D. 2017. Characterization of Pre-F-GCN4t, a Modified Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus FusionProtein Stabilized in a Noncleaved Prefusion Conformation. J Virol. 91(13):e02437-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02437-16.
  • Chen Q, Vieth M, Timm DE, Humblet C, Schneidman-Duhovny D, Chemmama IE, Sali A, Zeng W, Lu J, and Liu L. 2017. Reconstruction of 3D structures of MET antibodies from electron microscopy 2D class averages. PLoS One. 12(4):e0175758. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175758.
  • Ha S, Li F, Troutman MC, Freed DC, Tang A, Loughney JW, Wang D, Wang IM,Vlasak J, Nickle DC, Rustandi RR, Hamm M, DePhillips PA, Zhang N,McLellan JS, Zhu H, Adler SP, McVoy MA, An Z, and Fu TM. 2017. Neutralization of Diverse Human Cytomegalovirus Strains Conferred by AntibodiesTargets Viral gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex. J Virol. 91(7):e02033-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02033-16.
  • Kasturirangan S, Rainey GJ, Xu L, Wang X, Portnoff A, Chen T, Fazenbaker C, Zhong H,Bee J, Zeng Z, Jenne C, Wu H, and Gao C. 2017. Targeted Fcgamma Receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated Clearance by a Biparatopic Bispecific Antibody. J Biol Chem. 292(10):4361-4370. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.770628.
  • Loughney JW, Lancaster C, Price CE, Hoang VM, Ha S, and Rustandi RR. 2017. Development of a non-radiolabeled glucosyltransferase activity assay for C.difficile toxin A and B using ultra performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 1498:169-175. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.01.083.
  • Martinez-Murillo P, Tran K, Guenaga J, Lindgren G, Adori M, Feng Y, Phad GE, VazquezBernat N, Bale S, Ingale J, Dubrovskaya V, O'Dell S, Pramanik L,Spangberg M, Corcoran M, Lore K, Mascola JR, Wyatt RT, and KarlssonHedestam GB. 2017. Particulate Array of Well-Ordered HIV Clade C Env Trimers Elicits NeutralizingAntibodies that Display a Unique V2 Cap Approach. Immunity. 46(5):804-817.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.04.021.
  • Parupudi A, Gruia F, Korman SA, Dragulin-Otto S, Sra K, Remmele RL Jr, and Bee JS. 2017. Biophysical characterization of influenza A virions. J Virol Methods. 247:91-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.06.002.
  • Smith G, Liu Y, Flyer D, Massare MJ, Zhou B, Patel N, Ellingsworth L, Lewis M, Cummings JF, and Glenn G. 2017. Novel hemagglutinin nanoparticle influenza vaccine with Matrix-M adjuvantinduces hemagglutination inhibition, neutralizing, and protectiveresponses in ferrets against homologous and drifted A(H3N2) subtypes. Vaccine. 35(40):5366-5372. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.021.
  • Sun J, Remmele RL Jr, and Sanyal G. 2017. Analytical Characterization of an Oil-in-Water Adjuvant Emulsion. AAPS PharmSciTech. 18(5):1595-1604. doi: 10.1208/s12249-016-0626-8.


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  • Ali S, Sheikh S, Ahmad A, Ahmad MU, Chen P, Paithankar M, Choudhury K,Makadia RD, Kumar A, Velavan K, Satheesh CT, Singh JK, Mamillapalli G,Saptarishi D, Kale P, Patel R, Barkate HV and Ahmad I. 2016. Bioequivalence Study of Pegylated Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome (PEGADRIA) andDOXIL® in Ovarian Cancer Patients: Physicochemical Characterization andPre-clinical Studies. J Nanomed Nanotechnol. 7(2):361. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000361.
  • Flynn JA, Durr E, Swoyer R, Cejas PJ, Horton MS, Galli JD, Cosmi SA, Espeseth AS, Bett AJ, and Zhang L. 2016. Stability Characterization of a Vaccine Antigen Based on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein. PLoS One. 11(10):e0164789. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164789.
  • Fox CB, Orr MT, Van Hoeven N, Parker SC, Mikasa TJT, Phan T, Beebe EA, Nana GI, Joshi SW, Tomai MA, Elvecrog J, Fouts TR, and Reed SG. 2016. Adsorption of a synthetic TLR7/8 ligand to aluminum oxyhydroxide for enhanced vaccine adjuvant activity: A formulation approach. J Control Release. 244(Part A):98-107. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.11.011.
  • Kranz LM, Diken M, Haas H, Kreiter S, Loquai C, Reuter KC, Meng M, Fritz D,Vascotto F, Hefesha H, Grunwitz C, Vormehr M, Husemann Y, Selmi A, KuhnAN, Buck J, Derhovanessian E, Rae R, Attig S, Diekmann J, Jabulowsky RA, Heesch S, Hassel J, Langguth P, Grabbe S, Huber C, Tureci O, and SahinU. 2016. Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy. Nature. 534(7607):396-401. doi: 10.1038/nature18300.
  • Schneemann A, Sung JJ, Speir JA, Mulligan SK, On K, Quispe J, Carragher B, and Potter CS. 2016. Structural Characterization of Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics by TransmissionElectron Microscopy and 2D Classification Analysis. Microsc Microanal. 22(S3):1082-3. doi: 10.1017/S1431927616006255.
  • Schneider-Ohrum K, Cayatte C, Liu Y, Wang Z, Irrinki A, Cataniag F, Nguyen N, LambertS, Liu H, Aslam S, Duke G, McCarthy MP, McCormick L. Production of Cytomegalovirus Dense Bodies by Scalable Bioprocess MethodsMaintains Immunogenicity and Improves Neutralizing Antibody Titers. J Virol. 2016;90(22):10133-44. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00463-16.
  • Vlasak J, Hoang VM, Christanti S, Peluso R, Li F, and Culp TD. 2016. Use of flow cytometry for characterization of human cytomegalovirus vaccine particles. Vaccine. 34(20):2321-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.067.


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  • Carragher B, Schneemann A, Sung JJ, Mulligan SK, Speir JA, On K, Quispe J, and Potter CS. 2015. Electron Microscopy as an Emerging Analytical Tool for Characterizing Biopharmaceuticals. Microsc Microanal. 21(S3):65-66. doi: 10.1017/S1431927615001129.
  • Krarup A, Truan D, Furmanova-Hollenstein P, Bogaert L, Bouchier P, BisschopIJ, Widjojoatmodjo MN, Zahn R, Schuitemaker H, McLellan JS, andLangedijk JP. 2015. A highly stable prefusion RSV F vaccine derived from structural analysis of the fusion mechanism. Nat Comm. 6:8143. doi: 10.1038/ncomms9143.
  • Loughney JW, Rustandi RR, Wang D, Troutman MC, Dick LW, Jr., Li G, Liu Z, Li F,Freed DC, Price CE, Hoang VM, Culp TD, DePhillips PA, Fu TM, and Ha S.2015. Soluble Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex, but NotgH/gL, Inhibits Viral Entry to Epithelial Cells and Presents DominantNative Neutralizing Epitopes. J Biol Chem. 290(26):15985-95. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.652230.
  • Sitrin RD, Zhao Q, Potter CS, Carragher B, and Washabaugh MW. 2015 Recombinant Virus-like Particle Protein Vaccines in Nunally B, Turnula V, and Sitrin R (Eds.) Vaccine Analysis: Strategies, Principles, and Control. Springer. Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 81-112. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45024-6_3.
  • Sung JJ, Pardeshi NN, Mulder AM, Mulligan SK, Quispe J, On K, Carragher B, Potter CS, Carpenter JF, and Schneemann A. 2015. Transmission electron microscopy as an orthogonal method to characterize protein aggregates. J Pharm Sci. 104(2):750-59. doi: 10.1002/jps.24157.
  • Work TM, Dagenais J, Breeden R, Schneemann A, Sung J, Hew B, Balazs GH, and Berestecky JM. 2015. Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Have Novel Asymmetrical Antibodies. J Immunol. 195(11):5452-60. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1501332.


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  • Dong Y, Love KT, Dorkin JR, Sirirungruang S, Zhang Y, Chen D, Bogorad RL,Yin H, Chen Y, Vegas AJ, Alabi CA, Sahay G, Olejnik KT, Wang W,Schroeder A, Lytton-Jean AK, Siegwart DJ, Akinc A, Barnes C, Barros SA,Carioto M, Fitzgerald K, Hettinger J, Kumar V, Novobrantseva TI, Qin J,Querbes W, Koteliansky V, Langer R, and Anderson DG. Lipopeptide nanoparticles for potent and selective siRNA delivery in rodents and nonhuman primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111(11):3955-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322937111.
  • Fox CB, Mulligan SK, Sung J, Dowling QM, Fung HW, Vedvick TS, and Coler RN. 2014. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of recombinant tuberculosis vaccineantigen with anionic liposomes reveals formation of flattened liposomes. Int J Nanomedicine. 11;9:1367-77. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S56582.
  • Francis SM, Taylor CA, Tang T, Liu Z, Zheng Q, Dondero R, and Thompson JE. 2014. SNS01-T Modulation of eIF5A Inhibits B-cell Cancer Progression and Synergizes With Bortezomib and Lenalidomide. Mol Ther. 22(9):1643-52. doi: 10.1038/mt.2014.24.
  • Linke T, Aspelund MT, Thompson C, Xi G, Fulton A, Wendeler M, Pabst TM, Wang X, Wang WK, Ram K, and Hunter AK. 2014. Development and scale-up of a commercial fed batch refolding process for an anti-CD22 two chain immunotoxin. Biotechnol Prog. 30(6):1380-89. doi: 10.1002/btpr.1983.
  • Ma H, Galvin TA, Glasner DR, Shaheduzzaman S, and Khan AS. 2014. Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines. J Virol. 88(12):6576-85. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00780-14.
  • Wagner JM, Pajerowski JD, Daniels CL, McHugh PM, Flynn JA, Balliet JW, Casimiro DR, and Subramanian S. 2014. Enhanced production of Chikungunya virus-like particles using a high-pH adapted spodoptera frugiperda insect cell line. PLoS One. 9(4):e94401. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094401.
  • Zhao Q, Potter CS, Carragher B, Lander G, Sworen J, Towne V, Abraham D, Duncan P, Washabaugh MW, and Sitrin RD. 2014. Characterization of virus-like particles in GARDASIL(R) by cryo transmission electron microscopy. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 10(3):734-39. doi: 10.4161/hv.27316.


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  • Cayatte C, Schneider-Ohrum K, Wang Z, Irrinki A, Nguyen N, Lu J, Nelson C,Servat E, Gemmell L, Citkowicz A, Liu Y, Hayes G, Woo J, Van Nest G, Jin H, Duke G, and McCormick AL. 2013. Cytomegalovirus vaccine strain towne-derived dense bodies induce broad cellular immuneresponses and neutralizing antibodies that prevent infection offibroblasts and epithelial cells. J Virol. 87(20):11107-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01554-13.
  • Chen C, Zhu S, Huang T, Wang S, and Yan X. 2013. Analytical techniques for single-liposome characterization. Anal Methods. 5(9):2150-57. doi: 10.1039/C3AY40219C.
  • Correia I, Sung J, Burton R, Jakob CG, Carragher B, Ghayur T, and Radziejewski C. 2013. The structure of dual-variable-domain immunoglobulin molecules alone and bound to antigen. mAbs. 5(3):364-72. doi: 10.4161/mabs.24258.
  • Fox CB, Barnes VL, Evers T, Chesko JD, Vedvick TS, Coler RN, Reed SG, and Baldwin SL.2013. Adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine: variation of emulsion components affectsstability, antigen structure, and vaccine efficacy. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 7(5):815-26. doi: 10.1111/irv.12031.
  • Fox CB, Moutaftsi M, Vergara J, Desbien AL, Nana GI, Vedvick TS, Coler RN, and Reed SG. 2013. TLR4 ligand formulation causes distinct effects on antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Vaccine. 31(49):5848-55. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.069.
  • Hahn TJ, Courbron D, Hamer M, Masoud M, Wong J, Taylor K, Hatch J, Sowers M, Shane E, Nathan M, Jiang H, Wei Z, Higgins J, Roh K, Burd J,Chinchilla-Olszar D, Malou-Williams M, Baskind DP, and Smith GE. 2013. Rapid Manufacture and Release of a GMP Batch of Avian Influenza A(H7N9)Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Made Using RecombinantBaculovirus-Sf9 Insect Cell Culture Technology. Bioprocess J. 12(12):4-17. doi: 10.12665/J122.Hahn.
  • Miranda M, Sung J, Mulligan S, On K, and Quispe J. 2013. In Vitro Characterization of Liposomal Encapsulated Doxorubicin Using CryoTEM. Controlled Release Society Newsletter. 30(3):22-24.


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  • Agadjanian H, Chu D, Hwang JY, Wachsmann-Hogiu S, Rentsendorj A, Song L, Valluripalli V, Lubow J, Ma J, Sharifi B, Farkas DL, and Medina-Kauwe LK. 2012. Chemotherapy targeting by DNA capture in viral protein particles. Nanomedicine (Lond). 7(3):335-52. doi: 10.2217/nnm.11.104.
  • Feshchenko E, Rhodes DG, Felberbaum R, McPherson C, Rininger JA, Post P, and Cox MM. 2012. Pandemic influenza vaccine: characterization of A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)recombinant hemagglutinin protein and insights into H1N1 antigenstability. BMC Biotechnol. 12(1):77. doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-12-77.
  • Fox CB. 2012. Characterization of TLR4 agonist effects on alhydrogel(R) sedimentation: a novelapplication of laser scattering optical profiling. J Pharm Sci. 101(11):4357-64. doi: 10.1002/jps.23307.
  • Hwang JY, Lubow DJ, Chu D, Sims J, Alonso-Valenteen F, Gray HB, Gross Z, Farkas DL, and Medina-Kauwe LK. 2012. Photoexcitation of tumor-targeted corroles induces singlet oxygen-mediated augmentation of cytotoxicity. J Control Release. 163(3):368-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.09.015.
  • Kale M, Suruse P, Singh R, Malhotra G, and Raut P. 2012. Effect of size reduction techniques on Doxorubicin Hydrochloride loaded liposomes. International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research. 3(3):308-16.
  • Mulder AM, Carragher B, Towne V, Meng Y, Wang Y, Dieter L, Potter CS, Washabaugh MW, Sitrin RD, and Zhao Q. 2012. Toolbox for non-intrusive structural and functional analysis of recombinant VLP based vaccines: a case study with hepatitis B vaccine. PLoS One. 7(4):e33235. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033235.
  • Ripple DC and Dimitrova MN. 2012. Protein particles: what we know and what we do not know. J Pharm Sci. 101(10):3568-79. doi: 10.1002/jps.23242.
  • Schroeder A, Goldberg MS, Kastrup C, Wang Y, Jiang S, Joseph BJ, Levins CG, Kannan ST, Langer R, and Anderson DG. 2012. Remotely activated protein-producing nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 12(6):2685-89. doi: 10.1021/nl2036047.
  • Tong J, Briggs MM, and McIntosh TJ. 2012. Water permeability of aquaporin-4 channel depends on bilayer composition, thickness, and elasticity. Biophys J. 103(9):1899-908. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.09.025.
  • Willson R, Potter C, Carragher B, and Mulder AM. 2012. Cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy as an Orthogonal Tool for Characterization of Biopharmaceuticals. J Biomol Tech: JBT. 23(Suppl):S10.
  • Zhao Q, Modis Y, High K, Towne V, Meng Y, Wang Y, Alexandroff J, Brown M, Carragher B, Potter CS, Abraham D, Wohlpart D, Kosinski M, Washabaugh MW, and Sitrin RD. 2012. Disassembly and reassembly of human papillomavirus virus-like particles produces more virion-like antibody reactivity. Virol J. 9:52. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-52.


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  • Crawford R, Dogdas B, Keough E, Haas RM, Wepukhulu W, Krotzer S, Burke PA, Sepp-Lorenzino L, Bagchi A, and Howell BJ. 2011. Analysis of lipid nanoparticles by Cryo-EM for characterizing siRNA delivery vehicles. Int J Pharm. 403(1-2):237-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.10.025.


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  • Richter A, Olbrich C, Krause M, and Kissel T. 2010. Solubilization of sagopilone, a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug, using polymeric micelles for parenteral delivery. Int J Pharm. 389(1-2):244-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.01.032.
  • Sweeney JA and Hamm C. 2010. Field flow fractionation with multiangle light scattering for measuring particle size distributions of virus-like particles, in Jameel F and Hershenson S (Eds.) Process Development Strategies for Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. doi: 10.1002/9780470595886.ch11.


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  • Chuan YP, Fan YY, Lua L, and Middelberg AP. 2008. Quantitative analysis of virus-like particle size and distribution by field-flow fractionation. Biotechnol Bioeng. 99(6):1425-33. doi: 10.1002/bit.21710.
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